Monday, November 30, 2015

SQL execution steps in Oracle.

Below are the steps which are involved in when a SQL statement executes in Oracle.
Syntax Checking Phase
  • Whether the all keywords present "select . . . from", etc . .
  • DB semantic check against the data dictionary of the database.
  • Whether the used table names spelled correctly, and present in db dictionary.

Parsing Phase
  • Parse call does not return an error if the statement is not syntactically correct.
  • Creation of all possible ways of query execution with different costs as per CBO and identifying and generation of query execution plan with lowest cost.
  • This step uses database client/server cache, SGA, db datafiles, etc. all possible places from where data transition occurs.
  • This is where the table - tablespace - datafile translation occurs.
  • Once the execution plan is created, it is stored in Shared pool - library cache to facilitate re-execution. There are two types of parses:

Hard parse :
  • A new SQL statement must be parsed from scratch. 
  • Parsing can be a very expensive operation that takes a lot of resources to execute, when there is no previously parsed version of the SQL to reuse.
Soft parse :
  • A reused SQL statement where the only unique feature are host variables.
  • The best-case scenario is a parse to execute ratio of 100% which would indicates that the application if fully using bind or host variables in it.
  • It’s like parses SQL once and executes many times.

Bind Phase
  • In this phase, Binding lowest costs execution plan in db.
  • Once the execution plan is syntactically created, Oracle gathers the parameters from the client/application for the execution. It makes the addresses of the program/host/bind variables are known to Oracle.

Execute Phase
  • During the execute phase, Oracle executes the statement, reports any possible errors, and if everything normal, displays the result set. Unless the SQL statement being executed successfully, this is the last step of the  query execution.

Define Phase
  • The Oracle OCI interface defines addresses of the output variables known to the Oracle process in order to make it possible to the fetch call to know where to put the output variables.

Fetch Phase
  • During the fetch phase, Oracle displays the resultset to the application.

Once more, the define and fetch phases are relevant for queries only.The Oracle OCI interface module contain calls to facilitate each of those phases.

Friday, November 27, 2015

Unix - AWK Command by examples. Part 2

In this part, we will learn on AWK Built in Variables:

FS - Input field separator variable:

By default, AWK assumes that fields in a file are separated by space.
If the fields in the file are separated by any other column separator, we can use the FS variable for that.

Example 5. awk 'BEGIN {FS=":"} {print $2}' test_file
awk -F: '{print $2} test_file

output will be as below.


We can use -F option for to change column separator in command to display output.

awk -F: '{if ($2 == "") print $1 ": no password!"}'

We can easily move from one column separator to another column separator using awk.

#!/bin/awk -f
if ($1 == "#START") {
} else if ($1 == "#STOP") {
FS=" ";
} else {
#print the Roman number in column 3
print $3


OFS - Output field separator variable: 

Example 6. awk '{print $4,$5}' test_file

When we use print statement in awk, it uses default column seperator while displaying result.

The output of this command will be
unixrun 0
unixrun 175
unixrun 430
unixrun 428

We can change this default column seperator by using the OFS variable as

awk 'BEGIN {OFS=":"} {print $4,$5}' test_file

output will be as below.


If I run same command in this way, it will not work same as earlier, Here no column separator showing in output.

awk 'BEGIN {OFS=":"} {print $4$5}' test_file


NF - Number of fields variable:

The NF used to get the number of fields in line of a file.

Example 7. awk '{print NF}' test_file

This will display the number of columns in each row, output as below.


NR - number of records variable: 

The NR used to get the line number or no of lines in the file.

Example 8. awk '{print NR}' test_file

This will display the line numbers from 1.


Example 9. awk 'END {print NR}' test_file

This will display the total number of lines in the file, here output will be.


FILENAME - The Current Filename Variable

The last variable known to regular AWK is "FILENAME", which tells you the name of the file.

#!/bin/awk -f
# reports which file is being read
{ if (f != FILENAME) {
print "reading", FILENAME;

Unix - AWK Command by examples. Part 1

AWK command is one of the most powerful tools in Unix used for processing the rows and columns in a file. AWK has built in string functions and associative arrays and supports all functionalities of C language. We can also convert AWK scripts into Perl scripts using a2p utility, an added advantage of AWK.

awk 'BEGIN {start_action} {action} END {stop_action}' file

The actions in the begin block are performed before processing the file.
The actions in the end block are performed after processing the file.
The rest of the actions are performed while processing the file.

Create a file test_file with the following data. This file can be easily created using the output of ls -l.
-rw-rw-rw- 1 unixrun unixrun   0 Nov  26 21:39 AAAA
-rw-rw-rw- 1 unixrun unixrun 175 Nov  26 21:15 BBBB
-rw-rw-rw- 1 unixrun unixrun 430 Nov  26 21:39 EEEE
-rw-rw-rw- 1 unixrun unixrun 428 Nov  26 21:39 GGGG

Example 1. awk '{print $1}' test_file

$1, $2, $3... represents the first, second, third column,.. in a row respectively.
Here, awk command will print the first column in each row as shown below.

The variable "$0" refers to the entire line that AWK reads in. That is, if you had nine fields in a line,
print $0
is similar to
print $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $7, $8, $9


To print the 2th and 5th columns in a file use awk '{print $2,$5}' test_file

Example 2. awk 'BEGIN {cnt=0} {cnt=cnt+5+$3} END {print cnt}' test_file

This will prints the sum of the value as  (value of 3th column + 5 ).
In the Begin block the cnt variable is assigned with value 0.
In the next block the v (value of 3rd column + 5) is added to cnt variable.
In addition of this, same scenario is repeated for no of rows in a file.
When all the rows are processed the cnt variable will hold the sum of the values as per our formula (value of 3rd column + 5).
Finally, the output printed in the End block.

We can perform the above steps in another way also - by creating command file.

vi summation.awk
#!/usr/bin/awk -f
BEGIN {cnt=0}
END {print cnt}

This will create a file named as summation.awk, it will be executed by using awk command as below:

awk -f summation.awk test_file.

This will run the script in summation.awk file and displays the sum as per our formula (sum of the 3rd column + 5 ) in the test_file.

Example 3. awk '{ if($5 == "time") print $0;}' test_file

Above command is used for to find a particular string in a file in a specific column.
Here, it searches the string "time" in the 5th column  of the file and prints entire line in output.

-rw-r--r-- 1 unixrun unixrun 43 Nov  26 21:39 time

Example 4. awk 'BEGIN { for(i=1;i<=4;i++) print "Cube of", i, "is",i*i*i; }'

This will print the Cube of numbers from 1 to 4, The output of the command is

Cube of 1 is 1
Cube of 2 is 8
Cube of 3 is 27
Cube of 4 is 64

Monday, November 2, 2015

Constructors in Java.

Constructor in java is a special type of method that is used to initialize the object. Java constructor is invoked at the time of object creation. It constructs the values i.e. provides data for the object that is why it is known as constructor. 

Constructor name must be same as its class name and must have no explicit return type.

There are two types of constructors:
1. Default constructor (Non Parameterized constructor)
Default constructor provides the default values to the object like 0, null etc. depending on the type.

2. Parameterized constructor
A constructor that have parameters is known as parameterized constructor.
Parameterized constructor is used to provide different values to the distinct objects.  

Constructor overloading used in Java in which a class can have no. of constructors that differ in parameter lists.The compiler differentiates these constructors by taking into account the number of parameters in the list and their type. 

class Car
    int id;
    String carname;
    String brand;
    int qty;
    Car(int i,String n){
    id = i;
    carname = n;
    Car(int i,String n,Str a){
    id = i;
    carname = n;
    brand =a;
    Car(int i,String n,Str a,int t){
    id = i;
    carname = n;
    brand =a;
    qty = t;
    void display()
    System.out.println(id+" "+carname+" "+brand+" "+qty);
    public static void main(String args[]){
    Car s1 = new Student5(101,"Alto");
    Car s2 = new Student5(102,"Swift","Maruti",25);
    Car s2 = new Student5(102,"Swift","Maruti");    


101 Alto 0
102 Swift Maruti 25
102 Swift Maruti 0